History of Belmont Mansion
Adelicia Acklen, Proprietress of Belmont Mansion
Belmont Mansion revolves around the life of one woman, Adelicia Hayes Franklin Acklen Cheatham. Born on March 15, 1817, into a prominent Nashville family she wed three times, had 10 children and lived a life that reflected the patterns of 19th century Americans of means.
At the age of 22, Adelicia married Isaac Franklin, a plantation owner whose previous company traded slaves from the Upper to the Lower South. Franklin was 28 years her senior; their marriage produced four children, all of whom died by the age of 11. At his death in 1846 his estate included: 8,700 acres of cotton plantations in Louisiana; a 2,000-acre farm in Tennessee; more than 50,000 acres of undeveloped land in Texas; stocks and bonds; and 750 enslaved people. The young widow, Adelicia Franklin, was left independently wealthy at age 29.
On May 8, 1849, Adelicia remarried, to Joseph Alexander Smith Acklen, a lawyer from Huntsville, Alabama. The Acklens would eventually have six children.
Following Joseph's death during the Civil War Adelicia married a third time, widower Dr. William Archer Cheatham. The two created a blended family of Adelicia's surviving four children and his two.
Construction of Belmont Mansion
The first building phase of Belmont Mansion (originally named Belle Monte or Beautiful Mountain) was completed in 1853. The final phase was completed in 1860.
Belmont Mansion was built in the style of an Italian villa and was set amidst elaborate gardens. There were numerous outbuildings, including the water tower, which still stands, that provided irrigation for the gardens and supplied water for the fountains. In front of the water tower stood a two-hundred-foot long greenhouse and a conservatory. Also on the grounds were an art gallery, gazebos (still standing today), a bowling alley, a bath house, and a zoo. The Acklens opened the estate to the citizens of Nashville to enjoy the zoo and gardens.
The Civil War Period
Adelicia’s husband Joseph died on September 11, 1863, in the midst of the Civil War while managing the Louisiana land holdings, including Angola plantation. At the time of his death, there were 2,800 bales of Acklen cotton which both Union and Confederate forces were attempting to destroy. The cotton was the family's livelihood and one reason Joseph had been living in Louisiana while his family stayed in occupied Nashville. After her husband's death, Adelicia undertook a dangerous trip to Louisiana with a female cousin to extract the cotton away from both armies and illegally sell it to a broker in Liverpool, England, for $960,000 in gold.
Leaving Belmont Mansion and Moving to Washington, D. C.
In 1885, Adelicia Acklen, by then Adelicia Cheatham, moved to Washington, D.C., with three of her four surviving adult children. She, her daughter Pauline and Dr. Cheatham had spent an increasing amount of time in the capitol city. Adelicia had travelled throughout her life with Washington as only one of many places she visited frequently.
In January of 1887 she sold Belmont to a land development company. She began construction of a new home, pictured here, smaller in scale than Belmont, on Massachusetts Avenue.
Later that year, she contracted pneumonia while on a shopping trip to New York City, and died in The Fifth Avenue hotel. Her body was then returned to Nashville to be buried in the family mausoleum at Mount Olivet Cemetery.
The Beginning of Higher Education at Belmont
Late in the nineteenth century, two women from Philadelphia purchased Belmont Mansion from the land development company and in the fall of 1890, they opened a school for young women called Belmont College. In 1913 that school merged with the Nashville school, Ward Seminary, was renamed Ward-Belmont and became an academy and junior college for women. In 1951, the school changed ownership, becoming present-day Belmont University. Today, Belmont University is a coeducational, liberal arts school offering bachelor and graduate degrees.
The Restoration of Belmont Mansion Begins
Belmont Mansion Association, a private nonprofit restoration and preservation organization, was formed in 1972 with the purpose of caring for, restoring and maintaining this historic site. It continues to run the museum and owns the collection.
Today, restoration and operation of Belmont Mansion is funded by admissions, membership, fundraising events, corporate and private donations, and venue rental services.